The rapid advancement of science as a whole over the past century and a half has given rise to an immense number of specializations and subdisciplines, the consequence is the emergence of Science related Earth from a modern point of view. With this result that the modern Earth scientist, perhaps unfortunately, tends to know a great deal about a very small area of study but only a little about most other aspects of the entire field. Earth Science today is such an emerging point of scientific disciplines and a centre of great personal interest. This science is dynamic and flexible as well and overlaps with other sciences. NASA is progressive in their research in this field. Besides it is related to all the natural sciences. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science. In Earth Science, we focus on the periphery of Earth and it’s structure. The space science also comes in this regard. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the planet to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Again there are studies where it deals with Earth and how it works and its involvements in the Solar system. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth’s environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their vast wits about earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.
Various Fields and Earth’s Involvement
The Earth sciences can include the study of geometry and geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth’s interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geology, chronology, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves.
The fields which are generally involved:
Geometry and Geology: Geometry and Geology very intensely related to the idea of Earth Science. The focus point of Geology is the construction of the outer part of the Earth. Geology describes the rocky and soft parts of the Earth’s crust (or lithosphere) and its historic development. Major subdisciplines are mineralogy and petrology, archeology, geomorphology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural geology, engineering geology. Geometry on the other hand deals with Earth’s location in the Solar system and the angles it creates with the stars and planets.
Hydrology, Glaciology, Oceanography, Meteorology and Climatology: These are the subjects that deal with the water and air at or above the solid surface of the Earth as well as its climate. Physical geography is the study of earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans. According to thorough study of Earth Science, it revolves round the elements or possessions of Earth. The following brunches are geography, palaeogeography, climatology, meteorology, coastal geography, hydrology, ecology, glaciology. These include the study of the water on and within the ground (hydrology), the glaciers and ice caps (glaciology), the oceans (oceanography), the atmosphere and its phenomena (meteorology), and the world’s climates (climatology). Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earth’s crust that is subject to soil formation processes.
Environmental Science and Ecology: Environmental Science is very relatable in Earth Science study. Through this knowledge experts swim into vast experience of biodiversity. Ecology covers the interactions between organisms and their environment to retain its balance in the environment. This field of study differentiates the study of Earth from the study of other planets in the Solar System, Earth being its only planet teeming with life.
Geophysics: It is a branch of Earth Science where the study concentrate on the physical methods of research. It investigates the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. The whole process goes on by focusing on scientific research and results. Primarily it is related to geometry but it advances exploring the Earth’s core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Furthermore, it proceeds the understanding of crustal geology, particularly in mineral and petroleum exploration. To conceive the involvement of Plate Tectonic and its movements and shifting Geophysics works as well as predict seismic activity. Applied Earth sciences deal with current practical applications beneficial to society. oil reservoirs; mineral deposits; geothermal energy for electricity and heating, nuclear reactors etc are part of applied Earth Science. The study of the Earth also records on the Moon and the planets and their satellites (astrogeology). This field operates the investigation of relevant terrestrial features—namely, tektites (glassy objects resulting from meteorite impacts) and astroblemes (meteorite craters).
Geochemistry: Geochemistry simply with the help of Chemistry helps to research on the composition, structure, processes, and other physical aspects of the Earth. Aqueous geochemistry, cosmochemistry, isotope geochemistry and biogeochemistry and some other branches are the subdisciplines of this Geochemistry. It is also concerned with the physical-chemical makeup of the solid Earth, which include the study of minerals and its interrelations and involvements. Plate tectonics, mountain ranges, volcanoes, and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the Earth’s crust.
Earth’s Atmosphere and Magnetic field: The troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere are the five layers which revolve round the Earth, make up Earth’s atmosphere. 75% of the gases in the atmosphere are located within the troposphere, the lowest layer that helps life to be grown here. The atmosphere protects living organisms by shielding the Earth’s surface from cosmic rays—which are often incorrectly thought to be deflected by the magnetic field. Magnetic field is a magnet which is occurred by electric current. Earth is an electromagnet. The motion of fluid convection, created when the Earth surrounds the Sun sustains the Earth’s magnetic field.
Along with all these boundaries and barriers, there is a merging line where all the sciences and technology and historical topic are growing by mingling and merging to emerge subdisciplines. With these intergradational boundaries between the divisions of the Earth sciences (which, on a broader scale, also intergrade with physics, geography, technology, chemistry, biology, mathematics, and certain branches of engineering), researchers today must be versatile in their approach to problems. Hence, an important aspect of training within the Earth sciences is an appreciation of their multidisciplinary nature. NASA’s Earth Science Division (ESD) missions work and investigation in this subject to help us to understand our planet’s interconnected systems, from a global scale down to minute processes. Thus, understanding past geosphere-biosphere behavior is a potent approach to anticipating how linked physical, chemical, and biological processes that characterize Earth’s surface may be impacted by and respond to human activity. So, now-a-days it is a very useful science with all its potentials. Humankind needs to be safe from natural hazards and wants to live comfortably, with secure supply of energy, water and materials. Earth science research is the key to achieve these goals.